Other anatomical regions

Contrary to the shoulder, the ultrasound evaluation of other joints (elbow, wrist, hand, hip, knee, ankle and foot) is not standardized. The ultrasound examination will be targeted to answer a specific clinical question: assessment of the tendons, the ligaments, a soft tissue mass or looking for a joint effusion.

The most frequently investigated tendons by ultrasound are: At the elbow, the extensor and flexor tendons (lateral or medial epicondylitis) and the distal biceps tendon. At the hip, the iliopsoas tendon, the medius and minimus gluteal tendons and the trochanteric region. At the knee mainly the quadriceps and patellar tendons. At the Ankle, the Achilles tendon and the plantar fascia (fasciitis).The other tendons and ligaments of the ankle are also advantageously explored by ultrasound. In the fingers, hand and wrist, the tendons and tenosynovial pathologies, arthrosynovial cysts, and intra-articular effusion may be investigated by ultrasound.

The usefulness of ultrasound is limited to investigate the deep tissue such as hamstrings and adductors muscles, which are better visualized by MRI. Furthermore, MRI will be preferred for the overall study of a joint and MRI-arthrography for the evaluation of intra-articular structures such: the labrum, the femoroacetabular conflict of the hip, the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC)of the writ, the interosseous ligaments and the bone and cartilage surfaces. In certain circumstances, the CT-Scan arthrography will even be the examination of choice.

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